FOSTER of Launceston, Australia, Chapter 2.

The "FOSTER Family" section of this site is divided into 13 chapters and 8 sets of appendices. Please read in sequence by following the links at the bottom of each page or use the "Quick Nav" at top right. If you wish to select individual chapters, please click on the top left link to the Sitemap page. Citation of sources is shown as …ix) referring to the lists at the end of each section in this chapter.

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This page describes George FOSTER’s wife and George’s early career as pilot at Low Head.

George's Wife: The HAMMOND & FOSTER Families

The HAMMOND and FOSTER families appeared closely linked. Were they red arrowfriends, red arrowneighbours in William-street Launceston or red arrowrelatives? On 2 Aug 1839 when George FOSTER was 33, he married 19 year old Lucy HAMMOND, in the Residence of Rev. John Anderson of the Scots Church Launceston. The marriage register gave no indication of Lucy’s relationship with the John and Catharine HAMMOND who were later George's William-street neighbours.…i)

The "Ship News" column of the Nov 11, 1837 Cornwall Chronicle gave details of the arrival of the Brig ‘William’ from Sydney in Launceston on Nov 10, 1837 with passengers Catharine, Lucy and Harriet Hammond.…iii) Was this Lucy the same person who married George and were Lucy and Harriet sisters? The sibling relationship was suggested when Harriet HAMMOND married John FARRELL on 12 Jan 1848 at John FARRELL's home at Wellington-street Launceston and Lucy FOSTER was a witness!…ii) Catharine's death notice in 1854 shows she was John's wife and that she lived at William-street … see transcription below.v), v…a)

red arrowThe John HAMMOND and George FOSTER families were neighbours for a long while. The 1848 Census showed that George lived at Low Head…xxviii) and John lived at William-street Launceston.…xix) However, after that George and John were neighbours at William-street until about 1870 when John moved across the river. The Launceston Assessment Rolls from the Hobart Town Gazette showed that John was a next-door neighbour to George in William-street over the period 1853 to 1862 and that John had also sold or transferred property to George 1862 - 1865. John also occupied a house George owned in 1862.…iv) This information is tabulated here. John was a newsagent for the Cornwall Chronicle from 1861 to 1869 with his William-street address…xxvii)

red arrowThey were friends as well… John HAMMOND was the executor of George’s will.…vi)

red arrowHowever, were they relatives? John's Will tied everything together, showing that George was John HAMMOND'S son-in-law, since John left a bequest to his daughter Harriet as well as his “grandson” John FOSTER.…xv) Note there was no bequest to his daughter Lucy, probably not due to an estrangement, but due to John transferring real estate to George during John's lifetime. John was variously described as a dealer and a baker and his baker's shop was next door to George.…iv), xv) He must have been very influential in his grandsons' lives; since both Thomas and John FOSTER became bakers .... perhaps they served their apprenticeships with John HAMMOND? See here.

A newspaper death notice for John gave the breakthrough to find his early family history. It said in 1870 that John aged 77 was late of Farnham, Surrey, England,…vii) see transcription below. This enabled a search for John,…xi) Lucy,…xii) Catherine…x) and Harriet…xiii) and John's parents…xiv) in the Latter Day Saints site…viii), xiv) and Surrey History Centre which provides on-line copies of Parish Registers!…ix) These results are included in the descendancy report below.

Now to John's Tasmanian family history… John's first wife Catherine died in 1854:

DEATHS. This morning (7 Dec 1854), Catharine, the beloved wife Mr. J. Hammond, William-street, Launceston, aged 67 years. The funeral will take place at 10 o'clock on Saturday, when friends are invited to attend. J. SADLER, Undertaker.v), v…a)

About 1 year later, on 14 Jan 1856, 60 year old John married the 45 year old widow Mary PHILLIPS at his William-street home.…xvii)

About 1870 he moved house across the river to George Town Road, Newtown Launceston, where he died on 6 Aug 1870.

HAMMOND.—At his residence, Newtown, George Town Road, on 6th August (1870), in the 77th year of his age. Mr. John Hammond, late of Farnham, Surry, England. Friends are invited to attend the funeral, which will leave his late residence on Thursday, 11th instant, at three o'clock.—HILLS, Undertaker, Brisbane-street. …vii), vii…a)

John had been a newsagent for the Cornwall Chronicle from 1861 to 1869 with his William-street address…xxvii) and would have been well known to the Chronicle which provided further details about his death:

Sudden Death. — Mr. J. Hammond, store-keeper on the George Town Road, died, we regret to say very suddenly on Saturday. He was a remarkably healthy man for his age, 77 years, but had recently suffered from asthma which was the cause of death. He had been out shortly before the fatal attack and died on Saturday evening.…xxiii)

After John's death it appears that his widow Mary continued living in the same house named “Newtown” and the George Town Road extended down to the North Esk River and included Invermay Rd and thus Inveresk in Launceston. She must have tried carrying on "Mrs Hammond's Bakery" business for a few years, since it took 9 years before she sold the business to Caleb Smith, retaining the right to sell bread from her home at George Town Road.…xxii) She must have been an entrepreur like her late husband. There were regular advertisements (1881-1884) for the weekly paper "The Tasmanian" listing Mrs Mary Hammond of George Town Road as a retail outlet.…xxv) In 1890-91 Mrs Mary Hammond was listed as a dealer who lived in Inveresk on Invermay Rd between the cross streets Bedford and Gleadow. There were 7 people listed between these streets in the 1891 PO Directory, and Mary was 4th in the list of 7, living in the centre of this strip…xx) At the present time, Mary's probable location is taken up by the subsequent construction of Russell St and the only historic house remaining in this strip was ‘Barnsley’ 81 Invermay Rd, owned by Henry Hutchinson, 6th in the list of 7…xx), who died on 1 Feb 1931.…xxi)

John's widow Mary Hammond died on 5 Jul 1899 at Inveresk.…xviii)

DEATHS. HAMMOND.—On the 5th July, at her residence, Inveresk, Mary, relict of the late John Hammond, aged 88 years. FUNERAL NOTICES. The funeral of the late Mary Hammond will leave her late residence on Friday, the 7th inst., at 3 o'clock. Friends respectfully invited. No flowers.—H. POLLINGTON, Undertaker, 82 St. John-street. …xxiv)

and the contents of her home were put up for auction:

Monday, 17th July. Household furniture, bakery utensils, and a lot of useful sundries. W.T. Bell and Co., Limited are instructed by the trustee in the estate of the late Mrs. J. Hammond to sell the above by auction at the premises, Inveresk, George Town road, on the above date, at 12 o'clock sharp. No Reserve.…xxvi)

HAMMOND Descendancy Report

Where to now? It would be great to obtain a photo of the HAMMOND house at Inveresk in 1900!

HAMMOND Sources:
(i)   Marriage of George FOSTER & Lucy HAMMOND. Launceston district 2 Aug 1839. Reg# 1839/195. See here.
(Ii)   Marriage of Harriet HAMMOND & John FARRELL, 12 Jan 1848. Launceston district. Reg#1848/1962. See here.
(iii)   Ships News: Passengers on Brig 'William' from Sydney. Cornwall Chronicle; 11 Nov 1837: 2. See here.
(iv)  Launceston Rate Assessment Rolls: Schedule required by the Act to establish Municipal Councils in the City of Hobart Town and Town of Launceston , published in the Hobart Town Gazette. 4/4/1853 p 263, 20/3/1855 p 417, 17/2/1860 p 295, 21/11/1865 p 2017. See here.
(v)   Death of Catharine HAMMOND. Launceston Examiner; 7 Dec 1854: 2.
(v…a)  Death of Catherine HAMMOND (née DICKS), 1854. Launceston district. Reg#. See here.
(vi)   Probate of the Last Will and Testament and related documents for George FOSTER. Tas Archives: Probate file# AD 960/22 No 5534.
(vii)   Death of John HAMMOND. Launceston Examiner; 9 Aug 1870: 2.
(vii…a)  Death of John HAMMOND. 9 Aug 1870. Launceston District. Reg# 1870/1276. See here.
(viii)   International Genealogical Index (IGI). See the Latter Day Saints site
(ix)Surrey History Centre. Registers are available to search and view online on
(x)   Marriage of John HAMMOND & Catharine DICKS, St Andrew's C of E Farnham, Surrey, 12 Feb 1820. Church of England Marriages Surrey, England, 1754-1937;
(xi)   John HAMMOND baptism 25 Oct 1793, St Andrew's C of E Farnham, Surrey. Surrey, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812;
(xii)   Lucy HAMMOND, baptism, 25 Aug 1820, St Andrew's C of E. Farnham, Surrey. Surrey, England, Baptisms, 1813-1912;
(xiii)   Harriet HAMMOND, baptism , 1 Mar 1822, St Andrew's C of E. Farnham, Surrey. Surrey, England, Church of England Baptisms, 1813-1917;
(xiv)   Marriage of James HAMMOND & Frances BUCKELL, St Andrew's C of E Farnham, Surrey, 24 Jun 1788. Surrey, England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1937. These are John HAMMOND’s parents.
(xv)   Probate of the Last Will and Testament and related documents for John HAMMOND. Tas Archives: Probate file# AD960/8, Will No 1450, Date 1870. See here.
(xvi)   Marriage of Harriet HAMMOND & John FARRELL, 12 Jan 1848. Launceston district. Reg#1848/1962. See here.
(xvii)   John HAMMOND's 2nd Marriage to Mary PHILLIPS, 14 Jan 1856. Launceston district. Reg# 1856/707. See here.
(xviii)   Death Mary HAMMOND (née PHILLIPS), 5 Jul 1899. Launceston district. Reg# 1899/1555. See here.
(xix)     John HAMMOND, William-street Launceston Householders' Census Returns for Various Districts, Arranged by Parishes. Ref#CEN/97 page 489. Tasmanian Archives. See here.
(xx)   Tasmanian Post office Directory 1890-91. See here.
(xxi)   Death of Henry HUTCHINSON at his residence, ‘Barnsley’, 81 Invermay Road, Launceston, 1 Feb 1931. See here.
(xxii)   Sale of “Mrs Hammond's Bakery” business. Launceston Examiner; 13 Nov 1879:1. See here.
(xxiii)   Death of John HAMMOND. Cornwall Chronicle 13 Aug 1870: 9.
(xxiv)   Death of Mary HAMMOND. Launceston Examiner 6 Jul 1899:1.
(xxv)   “The Tasmanian” listing Mrs Mary Hammond of George Town Road as a retail outlet. Launceston Examiner; 25 Aug 1881: 1 and 15 Jul 1882: 2 and 10 Jun 1884:1.
(xxvi)   Estate of Mary HAMMOND. Auction of furniture etc. Launceston Examiner; 17 Jul 1899:8.
(xxvii)   “The Cornwall Chronicle” listing Mr Hammond of William-street as a retail outlet. Cornwall Chronicle; 23 Jun 1869; also 1861 to 1868.
(xxviii)   George FOSTER 1848, Low Head Householders' Census Returns for Various Districts, Arranged by Parishes. Ref#CEN1/77 page 135. Tasmanian Archives. See here.


Low Head Pilot: 1837- ~1850

The Pilot Station Low HeadThe Pilot Station Low Head
Photo: PD Strong 1999

George became leadsman (assistant to the pilot) in 1837 at Tamar (Low) Heads and he was gazetted as a full pilot on 11 Sept 1838.…i)
His gazettal said:-"The Lieutenant Governor has been pleased to approve of the following appointments in the Marine Department at Launceston:—Mr. George Foster, to be Pilot at Low Heads, vice Mr. James Ward, deceased. Mr. George Macdonald, to be extra Pilot for the river Tamar." …ii)

In 1838 - 39 George received a £8 allowance for maintaining his house which was additional to his annual salary of £10/4/2, fees £133/17/4, rationing for 3 convicts £60.…iii) His first seven children were born at Low Head during the period 1837 - 1850. George’s first child Jane was born on 23 Apr 1841.…iv)…a,b,c. In the 1842 Census of his Government owned stone construction Low Head house, he declared that only two people "generally reside in this Establishment" on 31 Dec 1841.... the details of these people were: 1 Male and 1 female between 21 and 45... Church of England, arrived free.…v) There was a space for people under 2 years, which was not used. At this time George was aged 36, and Lucy was 22. Where was Jane?

George's second child Thomas was born on 24 Mar 1842. He declared in the 1843 Census that three people "generally reside in this Establishment" on 31 Dec 1842.... the details of these people were: 1 Male and 1 female between 21 and 45... married, Church of England, arrived free. 1 male under 2 years, born in the colony, Church of England.…v) At this time George was aged 37, and Lucy was 23, and Thomas was 8 months old. STILL no mention of George's first child Jane!!

George declared in the 1848 Census that eight people "generally reside in this Establishment" on 31 Dec 1847.... the details of these people were:

1848 Census…v)
TOTALS 1 6 1 -
Under 2 years - 1 - -
2 and under 7 - 3 - -
7 and under 14 - - - -
14 and under 21 - - - -
21 and under 45 - 2 1 -
45 and under 60 1 - - -
60 and upwards - - - -

All were Church of England, two were married and arrived free (George and Lucy) and 4 were born in the Colony (George’s children) and the remaining 2 had not arrived free, were 2 males between 21 and 45, and were bonded in private service.…v) By this stage George and Lucy had the following children: (i) Jane b. 23 Apr 1841 (ii) Thomas b. 24 Mar 1842 (iii) George b. 18 Jun 1843 (iv) John b. 3 Dec 1845 (v) William b. 1 May 1847. Note that two further children were born at Low Head after the 1848 Census…. These were Catherine, b. 25 Jan 1849, and Ann, b. 10 Nov 1850.

Pilot Station Low Head The Pilot Station Low Head
Photo: PD Strong 1999

Only four male children were mentioned in this Census....... STILL no mention of George and Lucy’s first child Jane who was born on 23 Apr 1841. Perhaps 20 year old Lucy could not cope with Jane's birth and subsequent care and Jane may have been fostered out to another family? The next record of Jane was her marriage to the Low Head assistant lighthouse keeper James FRANCIS at George Town when she was 18. Perhaps Jane was fostered by the lighthouse keeper? …vi) a,b
George did make an effort to look after his male children. Following a Return of Grants Deed made June 1845, which imposed fines and fees for his Launceston William St property (see "Property"), George gave the land in trust to his sons Thomas and George on 23 Aug 1845.…vii)

On July 1, 1844, George complained to the Port Officer Matthew Curling Friend that his boat had been stolen from Low Head on the previous night. Lt. M.C. Friend wrote immediately to Captain Moriarty RN (Port Officer) at the Marine Office (Hobart). Moriarty had been the second Port Officer on the Tamar River for several months just before Friend was appointed Port Officer on Sep 1832.…viii)

George had a hazardous job at Low Head. Broxam and Nash describe the wreck of the ‘Tobago’.

"The brig ‘Tobago’ sailed from Sydney for Launceston on 17 May 1845 under the command of Captain Harrison with a cargo of about 150 tons of coal, consigned to the Hunter River Steam Navigation Company (owners of the regular Sydney - Melbourne - Launceston steamer p.s. ‘Shamrock’) and several passengers including her owner (and usually master) Charles Thomas. Arriving off Tamar Heads on the night of 2 June, the master signalled for a pilot, and when Pilot Foster came on board he ordered his men to proceed to a particular spot and show a light to guide them in. This they apparently failed to do, for the pilot mistook a fire at the salt-works inside the heads for the light he was expecting to see, and promptly piled the brig up on Shear Reef.

Heavy seas drove the vessel high onto the rocks, holing her badly and threatening to wash her complement overboard. Several boats put off to assist, one manned by the Port Officer, Lieut. M.C. Friend, capsizing and forcing its own crew to spend a perilous night clinging to the Shear Beacon before being rescued. However, by morning the weather had moderated and the boats managed to rescue all hands from the wreck and the upturned boat.

Neither vessel nor cargo being insured, Captain Thomas was a heavy loser, although he managed to recover much of the vessel's gear and copper before the hull was sold at auction for £50 and the fittings for £110. The convict members of the rescuing boat crews were also rewarded with tickets of leave or remissions of sentences. The ‘Tobago’ was a brig of 136 tons, 72.6 x 20.0 x 12.4ft, built at Barbados in 1830, and was registered at Sydney."…ix)

George FOSTER told another story in a submission to the Marine Board, which further illustrated the danger of his job in this period and the need for back-up rescue:

"On the 21st December, 1847—Mr Waterland’s boat was swamped while boarding the brig ‘Elizabeth Buchan’, from London. The vessel was then boarded by the river pilot, who sent his boat manned with the crew of the brig to pick them up, who succeeded in doing so. The men were much exhausted when the boat reached them, and there is no doubt that if it had been ebb tide they would all have been drowned".…x) Note: James Waterland was a pilot… appointed in September 1835.…xi)

Bethell tells of one of George FOSTER’s misfortunes: The yacht, ‘Psyche’, was bought by Bishop Nixon & our George FOSTER and sailed to Hobart Town in 1849. A convict passholder was made captain, but he and three other convicts stole the ship. They took her across the Pacific to the Sacramento River where they abandoned her and made for the goldfields.…xii)

Broxam is more specific and says that James Hill, a former English Channel Pilot, stole the yacht on Feb 20, 1849 with Rees Griffiths, John King and Matthew Clark while at anchor off the Commissariat Wharf. He also says that the ship was wrecked on or near Percy Island, Queensland; and that two of the crew posed as shipwrecked sailors and were rescued by the Kennedy relief expedition. He only gives rumour status to the claim that the ‘Psyche’ reached California.…xiii)

Carron’s eye-witness account of this relief expedition tells of finding 3 men on North Percy Island on April 15, 1849. One was "in a dying state, quite insensible, his eyes fixed and glassy; a little weak brandy and water was given him, which appeared to revive him; sent the boat on board to get restoratives, on her return gave him some arrow-root and port wine; our aid came too late, he was too much exhausted to resuscitate; he died at sunset." Carron describes the survivors’ conflicting stories. Significantly, he discusses the recovered fragments of a yacht, and the conclusion that they had found the remains of an 8 ton vessel. If we use the "Builder’s Old Measurement" formula which was current at that time, this 8 ton vessel would correspond to a 28' X 8' yacht. Was this the ‘Psyche’? …xiv)

Did George FOSTER’s yacht make it to America? I quote my son-in-law, since this is a family history site! My son-in-law navigated his yacht through the Panama Canal, back from the Americas, across the Pacific Ocean to Australia. He maintains the conventional view that James Hill, the former English Channel Pilot, probably had insufficient mathematical skills for such a voyage. In those days, higher order navigational skills were only available in Naval Colleges, or as on the job training to midshipmen over a number of years.

More on the Bishop, George and their yachts… Broxam(iv) also quotes an advertisement on October 30 1849, which said that a schooner yacht 26' X 8', ‘Shark’ was being sold on behalf of the Bishop of Tasmania and G. Foster.…xv) Perhaps yacht ownership was too great a problem?

What was the nature of the relationship between George and Bishop Francis Russell Nixon? A quotation below from Nixon’s biography tells how the jointly-owned yachts were used, and then mentions a subsequent 1854 voyage:

"Nixon never spared himself in the pastoral oversight of his large diocese, which included King Island, the Furneaux group and even Norfolk Island. In 1849 his yacht was stolen and never recovered, but he still contrived to visit the Bass Strait islands and northern Tasmanian settlements. His Cruise of the Beacon, with his own illustrations, records one such visit (23 Sept to Nov 24 1854). At his home, between travelling, he had interviews, voluminous correspondence, administrative duties, reading and the preparation of sermons and lectures. Even so, he found time for his family and for music, sketching and painting."…xvi)

Nixon’s account of this voyage showed that George FOSTER did not accompany him, the master of the ‘Beacon’ was Captain Nicholson, and the pilot accompanying the voyage was the port-officer, Captain King, R. N.. He also mentions his current (1854) partner in a yacht: "Not to mention the extreme hazard of threading these islands without an experienced pilot, the small cutter which I keep, in partnership with my excellent friend the Chief Justice, is ill-adapted to encounter the heavy seas and sudden storms that prevail in Bass’s Straits. Well calculated as is our little craft of ten tons for missionary work in the river or in D’Entrecasteaux Channel, something more substantial is required for a protracted cruise in a tempestuous region." …xvii)

I am hoping that some of Bishop Nixon’s records will give details of George FOSTER. Some of these may be kept in the archives of St. David's Anglican Cathedral, Hobart. James Boyce(i) has written about the Church of England's "Mission to the Islands" and mentioned Nixon’s voyage to Flinder’s Island in 1843 as well as his 1854 Beacon voyage. George was not mentioned.…xviii)

Perhaps there was a close relationship between the NIXON and the FOSTER families? A Sydney NSW Shipping Master’s Office passenger and crew list for the May 1860 inward voyage (to Sydney NSW) of the ship Tasmania from the Port of Melbourne included the following cabin passengers: Captain G. Foster, Miss Foster & two Miss Nixons!…xix) At this stage our George would be known as Captain Foster. A coincidence? Regrettably, neither the Tasmanian Archives…xx) or Public Record Office Victoria (PROV)…xxi) have yet indexed the relevant inward voyage from Tasmania of the ship Tasmania to the Port of Melbourne. Perhaps other references might help? iv) However, PROV did index the corresponding outward voyage of the "Tasmania" from the Port of Melbourne, with a Captain GB FORSTER aged 50, Miss FORSTER aged 20. There were also 2 Miss NIXONs, aged 22 and 20.…xxi)

Was this our FOSTER family? Captain G. FOSTER was about the right age, though the second initial "B" in the PROV record creates doubt. George did have a daughter, Jane FOSTER, aged 20 in May 1860, but she had just married James FRANCIS the assistant light house keeper at Low Head on 6 Dec 1859!…vi) a,b Would she have called herself Miss FOSTER on the May 1860 voyage with her father? Jane is a puzzle and thus is discussed earlier in this chapter… she was born to George in 1841 in Low Head, but then is not recorded with her family in the 1842, 1843 and 1848 censuses! Subsequent information is given on Jane FOSTER / Jane FRANCIS here.

Are the shipping NIXON records relevant? If they were Bishop Nixon’s daughters, they would have been born to his second wife Anna Maria Woodcock (m. 1836), before his family came to Hobart Town in July 1843…xxiii) . In that case they would be Mary Anne Parry Nixon b. 1 Jan 1839 and Emma Edmonstone Nixon b. 1840.

FOSTER Sources:
(i)   Obituary of George Foster. Launceston Examiner, Launceston. Dec 6, 1899.
(ii)   Gazettal of George FOSTER’s appointment as pilot. Colonial Times. The Gazette; 11 Sept 1838: 8.
(iii)Return of Pilots on the River Tamar. Amount of Salary Fees and Allowances received during the Year Commencing 1st April 1838 and Ending 31st March 1839. From Matthew Curling Friend, Pilot, to George King, Port Officer. Low Head Pilot Station Archives.
(iv) …a   Birth of Jane FOSTER: F FOSTER. Reg# 1841- 546. Date: 23 Apr 1841, Birth of unnamed female FOSTER. Parents: George FOSTER and Lucy HAMMOND. Rank or profession of father: Pilot. Informant: George Foster, Low Head, Father. Place of Registration: Launceston. Tas Archives.
(iv) …b   Birth of Jane FOSTER, Date: 23 Apr 1841. Reg# 1841/1544. Registered Launceston. Australia Birth Index, 1788-1922.
(iv) …cPresbyterian Church Baptisms held in the District of Launceston in the year 1841. Reg# 1841- 1544. Child’s Christian names: Jane Maria. When Baptised: 9 Jun 1841. When Born: 23 Apr 1841, Parents: George FOSTER and Lucy HAMMOND. Abode: Low Head. Quality or Profession: Pilot. By whom performed: John Anderson. Tas Archives. See here. Note: (iv)b & c reg#s are the same.
(v)Householders' Census Returns for Various Districts, Arranged by Parishes. Series number: CEN1. Tasmanian Archives. See here.
(vi) ) …a   Marriage of James FRANCIS and Jane FOSTER. Reg# 1859/396.Tas Archives.
(vi) ) …b   Marriage of James FRANCIS and Jane FOSTER..Marriages in the District of George Town. 6 Dec 1859. Reg# 1859/396. Tas Archives.
(vii) Memorial of an Indenture of Release dated 23 August, 1845... the parties George Foster of George Town, George and Thomas Foster of Low Head, John Hammond of Launceston (general dealer) and John Scott (pilot) of Launceston. Deeds Library of the Titles Registry in Hobart. Lands Department Document #1175.
(viii)   Notification of George Foster’s stolen boat, 1 Jul 1844. From Matthew Curling Friend, (Pilot), to Captain Moriarty RN Marine Office.. Low Head Pilot Station Archives.
(ix)   Broxam, G, Nash, M. Tasmanian Shipwrecks (Roebuck series, no. 51). Navarine Publishing Woden ACT; 1998; 1:54.
(x)   George FOSTER’S submission. Launceston Examiner, Feb 5, 1879: 2-3.
(xi)Statement of Pilots’ status in 1856. Low Head Pilot Station Archives.
(xii) Bethell, LS. The story of Port Dalrymple:life and work in Northern Tasmania. Government Printer Tasmania; c.1955;52,54 .
(xiii) Broxam G. Shipping arrivals & departures, Tasmania, vol. 3, 1843-1850, (Roebuck series, no. 45). Navarine Publishing Woden ACT; 1998; 3:150.
(xiv) Carron, W. Narrative of an expedition undertaken under the direction of the late Mr. Assistant Surveyor E. B. Kennedy. Sydney, 1849. eBooks @ Adelaide. 2006. (located here)
(xv) Broxam G. Shipping arrivals & departures, Tasmania. Ibid. 3: 167.
(xvi) Barrett WR. Nixon, Francis Russell (1803 - 1879). Australian dictionary of biography. Melbourne University Press Melbourne; 1967; 2: 285-288. Online version.
(xvii) Nixon FR. Cruise of the Beacon: a narrative of a visit to the islands in Bass’s Straits. Bell and Daldy London; 1857. (Placed in Project Canterbury, the free online archive of out-of-print Anglican texts.)
(xviii) Boyce J. God’s own country? The Anglican Church and Tasmanian aborigines.Anglicare Hobart; 2001; 43, 49-67.
xix) State Records Authority of New South Wales: Shipping Master's Office; Passengers Arriving 1855 - 1922; NRS13278, [X100-102] Reel 407. Transcribed by Martin and Sue Brown, 2004.
xx) Archives Office of Tasmania: Index to Departures 1817-1867.
xxi) Public Record Office Victoria: Index to Unassisted Inward Passenger Lists to Victoria 1852-1923.
Also… Index to Outward Passengers to Interstate, UK, NZ and Foreign Ports 1852-1886.
xxii) Syme, Marten. Shipping Arrivals & Departures, Victorian Ports:1856-60. (Roebuck series, no. 61). Navarine PublishingWoden ACT; Year(?); 3:page(?)
Note: This reference has not yet been sighted. It will probably refer to the relevant May 1860 inward voyage of the ship Tasmania from Tasmania to the Port of Melbourne. Could someone please help with the details?
xxiii) Barrett WR. Nixon, Francis Russell (1803 - 1879). Australian dictionary of biography. Melbourne University Press Melbourne; 1967; 2: 285-288. Online version.

The Story Continues